Jun 29, 2013

Ashokan minor rock edict of Nittur

The discovery of Asokan Minor Rock Edicts I and II at Nittur were reported in the newspapers late in the year 1977. The Nittur inscription raises the number of MRE I copies discovered in Karnataka from six to seven and that of MRE II versions from three to four. The existence of the two boulders with some writings on them was reported by E Visvanatha, a junior engineer of the Office of the Senior Geologist at Bellary to the Department of History and Archaelogy, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The inscription is situated 1½ kms south of village Nittur, Shirguppa Taluq in Bellary district.

March 8, 2013
Tekkalakote fort, Varavina Malleshwara Devasthana, Ashoka's edict at Udegolam, Nadivi fort.. those are the places we visited before coming to Asoka's edict of Nittur. Weather was warm but the carpet of paddy fields gave a cooling effect to the eyes. The edicts are situated at the base of a rocky hillock. The two granite structures in the center of the picture are recent creations to protect the boulders from sun and rain.
We could drive to the base of the hillock, we parked our cab near boulders. The care-taker was there alone. He was expecting us; his friends at Udegolam site had called informed about our visit. He said he was expecting us earlier, I told him about our little visit to Nadivi fort before coming here. I walked into one of the fields to get a view of boulders and part of the hillock.

Like Udegolam site, Nittur site also has two minor rock edicts. I'm assuming that boulder on the left has MRE I and on the right is MRE II.

Here we are looking at the 10' high boulder, on the surface facing is the inscription.

That's Mr.Prakash, the care-taker. We appreciated his sense of duty, the monument is kept clean and tidy. However, we were surprised at the absence of signage for such an important inscription.

The inscription is in Brahmi script and language is Sanskrit. This is MRE I- has 7 lines covering an area measuring 4' high x 18½' long. Letters' are 3½" to 8" high.

Now I turn to 'Ashokan Studies" a book by D C Sircar, to learn more about the inscription. Thanks to Mr. S B Hiremath, Director In-charge, Kannada Research Institute, Karnatak University, Dharwad for lending me this book. Incidentally, back in 1977 Mr. S B Hiremath was a member of the team from KUD who was here to document the newly discovered edict, he was a student at that time. He remembers spending four days at the site; a makeshift shelter was erected to protect them from wind and rain. Coming back to the book, it has information about recently discovered edicts of Emperor Asoka. Besides information about the discovery, transliteration and translation of the inscription, it also has photos of the impression sheets. Here are the scanned copies.

Picture source: Asokan Studies by D C Sircar

1. (I) Deva[nam]piyo he[vam] aha (/*) (II) adhvi(dhi)kani adhatiyani [va]sani yam..
2. [u]pasake [no cu] kho b[a]dham pakamte husam ekam [sa]mvacharam (/*) (III) satireke tu kho samvachare yam maya sanghe u
3. puyi[te].. ca me pakam[t]e (/*) (IV) imi[n]a kalena amisa....munisa Jambudipasi mi[sa] [deve]-
4. [hi] (/*) (V) pakamasa hi [iya]m pha[le] (/*) (VI) [no] hi iyam [mahapten=eva] sake papotave (/*) (VII) kama[m]         [khuda]ken=api paka9ma0mi[ne]ua vi[pule] [svage]
5. sake aradhayitave (/*) (VIII) [sa] [e]taya iyam a[tha]ya [savane] savapite yatha [khu]daka ca ma[ha]pa ca imam pakameyvu am[t]a pi ca me [jane]y[vu] ti (/*)
6. (IX) cira-thitike [ca] i[ya]m pake(ka)mehoti (/*) (X) imam ca v[ip]u[le] vadh[isiti] [badha]m ca vadhisti avaradhiya diyadh[i]yam [vadhis]iti (/*) (XI) iyam ca savapite[ne]
7. [sa]vapite v[yu]thena [200 50 6] (/*) (XII) [sava-pa]thaviyam ca viva[s]ite ti (/*) (XIII) yatha ra[j]a Asoka aha tatha(tha) ti (//*)

(I) Thus saith the Beloved of the Gods.
(II) It is more than two years and a half that I have become an upasaka (i.e. a lay follower of the Buddha), but was not excessively zealous [in the cause of Dharma] for one year.
(III) However, it is more than a year that I have been intimately associted with the Sangha (i.e. the Buddhist Church) and have been exerting myself [in the cause of Dharma].
(IV) By this time, in Jambu-dvipa (i.e. Asoka's empire), people who were unmingled (with gods) have been mingled with the gods.
(V) This is the result of [my] exertion [in the cause of Dharma].
(VI) Indeed, it is not only the big (i.e. rich) men who are capable of achieving this.
(VII) Even the small (i.e. poor) man, who exerts himself [in the cause of Dharma].
(VIII) Thus this declaration has been issued for the purpose that small and big men i.e. the rich and the poor exert [in respect of] this [matter] and the people living on the borders [of Asoka's empire] may know [about it].
(IX) And [in this way] this exertion [in the cause of Dharma] becomes everlasting.
(X) This exertion will increase to a considerable extent, will increase greatly [and] will increase more or less to one and half times.
(XI) This declaration has been issued [by the king] when he was away [from his capital on a tour of pilgrimage after the elapsing of] 256 [nights i.e. days of the tour].
(XII) {This edict] has been dispatched throughout the entire earth (i.e. Asoka's empire).
(XIII) [this has been done] in the way as it was said (i.e. ordered) by king Asoka.

As seen from the side, from the space between the two boulders.

Now we turn our attention to MRE II.

As seen from the paddy field.
As seen from the space between the two boulders.
This is the boulder which carries Asoka's message of peace... the same message Buddha had given the world.

Closer look at the text. This is MRE II; it is in 5 lines covering an area measuring 3' x 19'. Letters are smaller compared to MRE I.

Scanned copies photos of the impression sheets.

Picture source: Asokan Studies by D C Sircar
1. (I) [r]aja Asoko hevam aha (/*) (II) tuphe anapayatha Rajuke (/*) (III) [se] [a]napayisati j[a]napadam ca janam Rathikani ca (/*) (IV) mata-pitusu sususita [v]iya ti (/*) (V) [h]evama garusu (/*).
2. (VI) panesu ca dayitaviye[e] ti (/*) (VII) ime dharma-guna pavatitaviya [t]i (/*) (VIII) .. [tu]phe Rajuka anapayatha (/*) (IX) se dan[i] Devanampiyasa vaca[ne][na] [a]na[pay]i[sa]t[i] (/*) (X) se hemava ana[pa[yatha (/*) (XI) he[meva] [ca]
3. Bamhanani ca hath-arohani ca karanakini ca yug-a[cariyani] ca (/*) (XII)..........[yadisi] [po]rana pakit[i]..(/*) (XIII)..[ana][pa]y[i]sati (/*) (XIV) ..sususitaviya ti (/*) (XV) iyam apacayitaviye ti (/*) (XVI) acaliye apacayi-
4. taviya ca sususitaviya ca (/*) (XVII) ye acali ..............................ti (/*) (XVIII) [i]yam [ya]tharaham [pa]vatita[v]iy[e] ti y[a]d[i]si porana paki[t]i (/*) (XIX) yatha.
5. hi satireke huveya tatha pavititav[i]ye [ti] (//*)

(I) Thus saith king Asoka
(II) You (ie.e the Kumara and his Mahamantras) [should] pass orders on the Rajjuka
(III) He will pass oredres on the people of the countryside as well as on the Rastrikas.
(IV) "[One] should be obidient to [one's] parents."
(V) "In the same way, [one should be obidient] to one's elders."
(VI) "[One] should be kind to the living beings."
(VII) "One should propound these attributes of Dharma."
(VIII) [Thus] you should pass orders on the Rajjuka.
(IX) He will then pass orders [on his subordinates] in the words of the Beloved of the Gods.
(X)  Therefore you should pass orders [on the Rajjuka].
(XI) And in the same way, [orders should be passed on] the Brahmanas (i.e. the teachers of the Brahmana community) elephant riders, scribes and charioteers.
(XII) '[You should instruct your pupils] in accordance with what is the ancient usage'
(XIII) [He, i.e. the Rajjuka] will pass orders [as follows].
(XIV) "[The instruction] should be obeyed [in the same way.]"
(XV) "This should be held in respect."
(XVI) "The teacher should be honoured and obeyed."
(XVII) "Again, those who are the teacher's [kinsmen, among them also the instructions should be established.]"
(XVIII) "This should be established in the proper manner in accordance with what is the ancient usage."
(XIX) "{This] should be established in such a way that it becomes abundant."

Video link to Asokan edict of Nittur.

Here's a map of Nittur-Udegolam area. Roads connecting Tekkalakote and Udegolam/Nittur are dirt tracks but surface is good.

Tekkalakote to Udegolam site = 6½ kms
Udegolam site to Nittur site = 3½ kms
Tekkalakote to Nittur site = 10 kms

Today we are keeping up with the itinerary, the progress is good so far. Next on our list is Halaekote, a fort between Tekkalakote and Shirguppa.

To learn about the all edicts in Karnataka check out the nine edicts of Ashoka in Karnataka.

Site Coordinates: 15°32'49"N   76°49'57"E

Jun 26, 2013

Ashokan minor rock edict of Udegola

I had spent hours researching Google maps trying to find the exact location of Nittur and Udegolam; found Nittur village but Udegolam was unmarked. Also I wasn't sure if these edicts were within the villages or situated in a remote place like Palki Gundu. Well, I did not want to assume anything.. let me go there.

March 8, 2013
We had left Bellary early; our first stop was Tekkalakote, next was Varavina Malleshwara temple 4 kms east of Tekkalakote. We came back to Tekkalakote, got directions for Nittur. The road was flanked all boulder strewn hills; the very look of those  hills gave a feel of prehistoric human settlements; in fact we could see a couple of rock-shelters on the slopes, perfectly suitable for humans to live in. I was tempted to stop and explore but the thought of upsetting the itinerary was not a good idea. After couple  of kilometers the tar road gave way to a narrow mud road. At a brick factory the path turned right and left; we entered the paddy belt. It was a carpet of green as far as we could see; we could see rock-formations too. Instead of heading to Nittur straight away we stopped at the first person we met to ask for directions. This person guessed our purpose, he suggested us to see Udegola first, which we were closer to and gave rough directions to Nittur site. Thanks to the man; I was relieved now :-)

A narrow path led to a rock formation; we could see a short flight of steps leading to a small rock shelter protected by brick-wall, grills and doors. I went in and peeped, it was a temple. I scanned the surroundings; behind a clump of Neem trees was a granite structure- close to the left edge in this picture.

There it is- Asoka's minor rock edict of Udegolam.
Two women and a little boy were sitting close by, they told us the care-taker was on sick leave :-(
I offered to take pictures of them but they were too shy, even the kid did not want his picture taken.
Minor Rock Edict II
The edict was inscribed on the entire surface facing us. However, some parts of the inscription was barely visible. I guess trained epigraphists' eyes can catch text better than any layman's eyes.

A closer look- click on the image to enlarge it - that way you'll see the letters.

I guess exposure to nature's forces the surface chips of in layers. I hope this shelter helps preserve it better.

Other side of the boulder. The place is silent and peaceful. I wish I had more time to explore & inspect the rocks behind me. The ladies told us about the second inscription close by ..a minute's walk in the direction we are looking.

Few minutes later a man came, he seemed to be the father of the kid. He accompanies us to the second inscription. Here it is-

Minor Rock Edict I
We were looking at a plain surface, no text. Then a careful, closer look at the rock we could identify faded text.

My heartfelt thanks to Mr. S B Hiremath, Director In-charge, Kannada Research Institute, Karnatak University, Dharwad for lending me the book 'Ashokan Studies by D C Sircar'. All information following this line have been sourced from this book. The author has used the abbreviation MRE for the phrase 'minor rock edict'. There are two types of minor rock edicts- MRE I and MRE II.

The Asokan edict of Udegolam was found seven months after the discovery of Nittur edict. The news was announced in March 1978 by Director of Archaeology, Karnataka. Nittur edict discovery was reported in September 1977. Both sites have MRE I and MRE II.

Nittur edict is in Brahmi script and the language is Sanskrit. MRE I is in six lines, inscription is damaged and most parts are not legible. MRE II is in eight lines and in fairly good condition.

1. ....yam hakam upasake (/*) [no] tu kho badham pa[kamte]....
2. ....[ba]dham ca me pakamte/imina cu k[a]lena / amisa....
3. ...[no] hi iyam ma[ha]pten=eva sake pa....
4. ....etya iyam [a]
5. ....[cira-th]itike ca iyam pakame....
6. ....[savane] savapite [vyu]....

1. (I) raja Asoko Devanampiyo hevam apa(ha) (/*) tuphe anapayatha Rajukam (/*) se anapayisiti j[a]napadam [ca] janam Rathikani 2. ca (/*) mata-pitusu sususitaviye ti (/*) hevam=eva garusu (/*) panesu ca [da]yitha(ta)[vi]ye ti (/*) ime dhammaguna pavatitaviya ti (/*) [he]
3. vam tuphe Rajukam anapayatha (/*)se ta(da)ni Deva[nam]piyasa vacanena anapayisati ti (/*) [ta] ta hemava anapayatha ca ti (/*) Bambhanani ca hath-aro[ha]
4. [ni] ca karanakani ca yug-a[ca]riyani ca (/*) [tu] phe nivesayatha amt[eva]sisi(ni)yadisi pora[na pakiti] (/*) [se anapa]yisa[ti ca] (/*) [susu]sitaviye ti / iyam
5. ca apacayitaviye ti / se acariyasa apaca[yi]va(ta)viye ca sususitaviye (ca/*) ye pi ca acariyasa natika / tasu pi yathalaham pavatitaviye ti (/*)
6. hemeva [ca] pati[v]as[i]su pi yatha[la]ham pavatitaviye / ya[di]si porana pakiti (/*) yatha iyam [hi] sati[re]ke huveya tatha pavativa(ta)viye ti (/*) hevam tuphe anapayatha
7. nivesayatha ca amtevasini ti (/*)

I wonder how many edicts of Samrat Asoka remain lost. He did make an effort to change the way people lived.. for the better.

Here's a map of Nittur-Udegolam area. The roads connecting Tekkalakote and these sites are dirt tracks but surface is good.

We say bye to the farmer friend & his family and head towards Nittur.

Video link: Ashoka's Edict at Udegolam.

To learn about the all edicts in Karnataka check out the nine edicts of Ashoka in Karnataka.

Jun 22, 2013

Ashokan minor rock edict of Brahmagiri

My introduction to Asokan edicts (conveying Buddha's message of peaceful existence) started with Gavimath edict followed by Palki Gundu and Maski sites. Of nine edicts in Karnataka I had visited three. Next on my plan were edicts in Chitradurga district. This map shows the location of three more edicts- Jatinga Rameshwara, Siddapura and Brahmagiri - all within a diameter of 5 kms - situated at the northern tip of the district.

March 7, 2013
First half of the day was spent at Sangankallu Neolithic site. After lunch at Bellary we drove down NH13 towards Chitradurga. We knew we had to turn off the highway few kilometers after Rampura town. Near Rampura bus-stand we stopped to check directions before proceeding. The person whom we spoke to was also going to Siddapura. Our new friend joined us and we got introduced as we traveled. Anantapadmanabhachar is a headmaster of government school at Rampura. He's originally from Siddapura, now settled in Rampura. took us straight to the monument. Here it is- a neat little stone structure to protect the inscription conveying Samrat Asoka's message of peace, situated at the northern base of Brahmagiri hill.

The protective enclosure was locked, no sign of security or caretaker around. We have to content looking through the grills.

The inscription is engraved over an area measuring approximately 9' x 13'. Text is read from this direction.

The letters were clearly visible to eyes but capturing them with a camera needs few trials. For better visibility of letters in the image I had to shoot it from the opposite side i.e. the letters are upside down in this view. This inscription dates back to 300 BCE. Language is Pali and script: Brahmi.

That's our host and Malatesh standing at the door. Malatesh is making a video.

With permission from Mr.S B Hiremath, Director in-charge of Kannada Research Institute (KRI) at Karnatak University, Dharwad I was allowed to refer books at the department's library. After a bit of searching I found transliteration and translation in Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol I. Thanks to the librarian Ms.Vijayalakshmi Sangam for patiently finding the book needed.

1 (A) [S]uv[a]mnagirite ayaputasa mahamatanam cha vachan[e]na Isilasi mahamata arogiyam vataviya hevam cha vataviya (B) Devanampiye anapayati
2 (C) adhikani adhatiyani v[a]sani ya hakam....sa[ke]   (D) no tu kho badham prakamte husam ekam savachharam (E) satireke tu kho samvachharem
3 yam maya samghe upayite badham cha me pakamte (F) imina chu kalena amisa samana munisa Jambudipasi
4 mi[s]a devehi (G) pakamasa hi iyam phale (H) no hiyam sakya mahatpeneva papotave kamam tu kho khudakena pi
5 paka[m]i ... nena vipule svage sakye aradhetave (I) e[t]ayathaya iyam savane savapite
6 ............ mahat[p]a cha imam pakame[yu t]i amta cha mai janeyu chirathitike cha iyam
7 [paka] ...........(J) iyam cha athe vadhisiti vipulam pi cha vadhisiti avaradhiya diyadhiyam
8 [vadh]isiti (K) iyam cha savan[e] sav[a]p[i]te vyuthena (L) 200 50 6 (M) se hevam Devanampiye
9 aha (N) mata-pitusu susus[i]taviye hemeva garu[su] pranesu drahyitavyam sacham
10 vataviyam se ime dhamma-guna pavatitaviya (O) hemeva amtevasina
11 achariye apachayitaviye natikesu cha [ka]m ya..raham pavatitaviye

(A) From Suvarnagiri, at the word of the prince (aryaputra) and of the Mahamatras, the Mahamatras at Isila must be wished good health and be told this:
(B) Devanampriya commands (as follows).
(C) More than two and half years (have passed) since I (am) a lady-worshipper (upasaka)
(D) But indeed I had not been very zealous for one year.
(E) But indeed a year and somewhat more (has passed) since I have visited the Sangha and have been very zealous.
(F) But men in Jambudvipa, being during that time unmingled, (are now) mingled with the gods.
(G) For this is the fruit of zeal.
(H) For this cannot be reached by (a person) of high rank alone, but indeed even a lowly (person) can at liberty attain the great heaven if he is zealous.
(I) For the following purpose has this proclamation been issued, and (that even) my borderers may know (it), and (that) this zeal may be of long duration.
(J) And this matter will (be made to) progress, and will (be made to) progress even considerably; it will (be made to) progress to at least one and a half.
(K) And this proclamation was issued by (me) on tour.
(L) 256 (nights have been spent on the tour)
(M) Moreover, Devanampriya speaks thus
(N) Obedience must be rendered to mother and father, likewise to elders; firmness (of compassion must be shown towards animals; the truth must be spoken; these same moral virtues must be practiced
(O) In the same way the pupil must show reverence to the master, and one must behave in a suitable manner towards relatives.
(P) This is an ancient rule, and this conduces to long life.
(Q) Thus one must act.
(R) Written by Chapada the writer.

The inscription boulder is situated at the northern tip of Brahmagiri base. This enclosure was built by a British officer; thanks to his initiative towards preserving Indian heritage. I wish our countrymen, especially the so called leaders develop such traits in preserving their own heritage.

Brahmagiri hill looks like a heap of boulders, however the slope close to the edict was gradual slope, we climbed as far as it was friendly, to get a view of the surroundings. In this picture below, the hill at the top-left corner is Jatinga-Rameshwara and in between the narrow longish yellow patch is Hagari; totally dry, all we could see was sand.

Here's a short video by Malatesh.

My wish was to see all three inscriptions but I had no hopes of seeing them all today mainly because of time constraint. I wanted to see Gudekote before sunset so we had leave early. The other reason being not knowing the correct locations of Siddapura and Jatinga-Rameshwara inscriptions. Our friend created little confusion, Anantapadmanabhachar said Bramhagiri edict is the only one here, did not know the existence of the other two. Also, I guessed Jatinga-Rameshwara hill climb will be a long one, something to be done early mornings. We could have looked for Siddapura edict but I let it pass, anyway I have to come back here.

Anantapadmanabhachar wanted to show a Jain temple west of Brahmagiri hill. The temple is well preserved.

The temple interior is as simple as the exterior. It has a mukha-mantapa and a garbhagudi. On the garbhagudi door frame was a small image of Mahaveera in padmasana. Outside the temple we could see three hero-stones and a platform with several sculptures of serpents and a black-stone Ganesha. In this picture below, to the right edge is Siddapura hillock- it seems that Siddapura inscription must be situated there.

Next to the temple was a foundation of another temple, for some reason construction was abandoned. See one of the hero-stones (inset). Opposite the temple is pond, of course its dry now.

So head back, stop for a minute at Gram Panchayath office for Anantapadmanabhachar, he wanted to hand over a letter. We headed back towards Rampura... I was wondering how come our friend is ignorant of the other two edicts ...anyway, when I come here again, I'll ask him to join the search. We dropped off our friend at Rampura and head towards Gudekote to see the little fort over a rocky hillock.


Jun 19, 2013

Bachangudda's second megalithic tomb

February 23, 2013

While traveling from Akkargal to Shantagiri we stopped at Bachangudda for few minutes, I wanted Malatesh to see the two-chamber megalithic burial chamber. The stop gave us a bonus; we got a chance to see the other megalithic tomb which I missed during my earlier visits.

This is the tomb I had seen earlier.. Stone Age Megalithic Tomb of Bachangudda. This is about 25' from the road, visible clearly from the road.
two chambered burial tomb
The second tomb is situated about 60' away from the road, not easily visible because of the vegetation around it. Also, during agricultural seasons, crops conceal it. Here it is- looks like a heap of rubble. I went around it clockwise..

This side too is covered by dirt. Cap-stones are moved and lying to the sides.

That's Malatesh sitting on the side walls.

JOwar-stalks heaped around the monument. In the background is Bachangudda hill. Behind the hill flows river Malaprabha.

A short video by Malatesh.


Jun 15, 2013

Taylor Manzil, Shorapur

About 3 years back I had read a newspaper article about Taylor Manzil. It was very interesting to learn about the unique building. The article did not carry a picture, so I had no idea how the house looked. Some time later, as my interest in prehistoric sites got deeper, I bought the book 'Megalithic Tombs and other Ancient Remains in the Deccan' authored by Meadows Taylor. I became an admirer of Mr.Taylor and wanted to learn more. That's when I decided to visit his home in Shorapur- the Taylor Monzzil.

Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor was an Anglo-Indian administrator during Brtish rule in India. Meadows Taylor studied the laws, geology, and the antiquities of India. He introduced India and its culture to the West through his books such as Confessions of a Thug, Tippoo Sultaun, Tara, etc. Meadows Taylor was one of the foremost early experts on megaliths.

About 1850, Meadows Taylor was appointed by the Nizam of Hyderrabad to administer the principality of the Raja Venkatappa Nayaka i.e the present day Surpur (Shorapur) taluq and surrounding areas in Karnataka. This bungalow was built during his 12 year posting at Shorapur. The bungalow is situated on a rocky hill just outside the town. The building, designed by Taylor himself resembles the letter T in plan. Taylor constructed the building with safety on his mind; it was designed to have escape routes in all directions. The bungalow has a door on every outer wall and 27 doors in total. When every doors is closed and when any door is shaken, all the other doors begin to shake - this has been done as a warning system in case of an attack.

December 24, 2012
Taylor Manzil was the last item on our itinerary for the day. We arrived here from Vanadurga, a fort said to be built during Raja Venkatappa's rule. Shorapur is a busy little town, very dusty because of the ongoing development work. With people's help we found the way to TM quite easily; here we are looking at the 169 year old bungalow. The monument is under state government, currently used as a guest house. In fact the inspection bungalow (IB) a recent construction sits right next to TM.

That's Taylor Manzil. I'm quite sure it looked a lot different when Taylor lived here.

The front portico is spacious, a good place to spend a relaxed evening. The main door is on my right.

Converging wooden beams support the roof slab.

The front doors opens into this room, the living room. Beyond the arched doorway is the lunch room. Bedrooms are situated on either sides, totally four bedrooms. The rooms are large and spacious with equally spacious bath & dressing rooms.

I did not shoot many pictures inside, do take a look at the short video.

The bungalow has plenty of space around it. Also there's a outdoor seating area close to the edge of the plateau, offering a good view of Surpur town. Just outside the compound wall is this oval shaped tank. Perhaps it was a fish pond or a fountain pond. Right now it lies neglected, filled with rubble and trash. Government engineers and official see only big objects, they can't see smaller things :-(

About 150m to the east is a rock formation. I'm not sure if its called Kudure Gudda ~ horse's hill as mentioned in a news article. On the rocks is a small tower, most likely constructed built when the bungalow was built.

Surpur town comes into view.

The surrounding area is completely covered with hills.

Taylor Manzil as seen from the watch tower.

Here's a schematic giving approximate plan of the spot.

I was happy to have visited Taylors home but sad to see the way it is being used. If you ever see it your own eyes you might underwtand what I mean. In my opinion it should be maintained like a museum. That's wishful thinking.

Meadows Taylor was born at Liverpool, England on September 25, 1808 and died on May 13, 1876 at Menton, France.